IT question and answers


ISP:- ISP stand for Internet service provider. There are Govt. Sponsor or private companies that provide Internet access to common people are called ISP.

HardWare Requirement For ISP:-

  1. Fractional T-1 base Internet connection:-

Every ISP have to link a server with some fractional T-1 base Internet connection. This may be an international like Bells, UUNet, Microsoft or it can be a local Server.

2.  PRI :- (Primary Rate Interface ) :-

In order to provide access with one or two telephone numbers to multiple user ISP need a PRI which support 23-24 user at a time depending on its configuration .

There are two types of PRI using now a day.

  1. CSU :- Channel Service Unit
  2. DSU:- Data Service Unit
  1. Modem :-

A device which convert analog signal to digital and digital to analog needed by every computer that is connected to other computer via telephone lines to send and receive data.

  1. Router:-

A router creates or maintains a table of the available roots and their condition . The most common routers used now a day are from CISCO and Motorola.

5.  NAS ( Network Access Server):-

A very important part of ISP which make connection of the local ISP server with fractional T-1 Internet provider . most commonly used NAS are Ascend max or CISCO.

Beside above requirements an ISP needs at least two decent size servers capable of running Read Hat Linux or other version of Linux. Red Hat is preferable because it has 90% build in function needed to run an ISP.

The Server should be Pentium 3 or 4 with at least 1 GH processor speed and 256 or 512 MB of memory minimum .

Software Requirements:-

Programs to perform following tasks in ISP are the part of ISP.

  1. TCP/IP:-

TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, which is a set of networking protocols that allows two or more computers to communicate. The Defense Data Network, part of the Department of Defense USA, developed TCP/IP and it has now been widely adopted as a networking standard

  1. DNS (Domain Name System)

DNS stands for Domain Name System. The DNS is a record, located at the registry that converts IP addresses from numbers into names, i.e. to This record tells a browser where your web site is located and also tells mail servers where to route your mail to. If the DNS isn't set up properly your domain name won't work.

  1. E-mail Server

ISP need a mail package like SENDMAIL (comes with most linux’s) and protocols such as POP3 , IMAP, and SMTP. This useful to communicate with customers and also allow customers to use ISP as mail server.

  1. Firewall:-

Firewall is a technical term, which means a piece of computer/networking hardware/software that is used to block unauthorized access to a computer network

  1. Radius :-

This is the protocol used to authenticate dial in users into NAS against your user/password list. One can get a free open source copy of radius server at:

  1. Billing Package:-

Most important is keeping track of who owes ISP money and having the ability to shut users off (automatically) if they do not pay. There are various packages out there but a good low cost alternative is available at:

g.  MRTG :- ( Multi Router Traffic Grapher)

MRTG: Excellent program that is used to monitor bandwidth and lets ISP know when it peaks are and when you need to get more bandwidth. Available at:

Bandwidth is a speed with which data is transfer on net common bandwidth used now a day.

DSL (192 Kb ) , T1 (154 MB), DS3 (450 MB)